Crise 1929 -1939 - archives et analyses d'historiens et économistes dont J. E. Stiglitz
Partie I :
Partie II :
Pour information les liens suivants sur la crise de 2008 - 2012... :
Crise de 1929 et la suite...
Crise de 1929, Krack, Crack : de 1929 à 1939
Sur la crise de 2008 -2012....
« La Crise est finie ! », cri de défi à la morosité ambiante. Heureusement, l'obstination et la chance paient ; le public vient en masse à la première !!!
1934 - France - Comédie -
Réalisation : Robert Siodmak
Auteurs & scénaristes : Jacques Constant, Frederick Kohner, Max Kolpé, Frédéric Lohner et Curt Siodmak
avec : Albert Préjean (Marcel), Danielle Darrieux (Nicole), Régine Barry (Lola Garcin), Jacques Beauvais , Marcel Carpentier (Bernouillin), Suzanne Dehelly (Olga), Suzy Delair
Une vidéo qui en dit long sur l'ambiance de l'époque pour combattre la dépression, malgré la propagande disant que la "crise est finie"
Le 16 juillet 1935, à Paris, le président du Conseil Pierre Laval promulgue 29 décrets-lois.
Entre autres mesures, ils comprennent une réduction générale de 10% de toutes les dépenses publiques. Y compris les salaires des fonctionnaires et les intérêts des emprunts.
Cette politique dite de «déflation» (diminution des salaires et des prix par voie d'autorité) est la seule manière qu'a trouvé le président du Conseil de relancer l'activité et les échanges sans avoir à dévaluer la monnaie.
Il n'atteindra ni l'un ni l'autre de ces objectifs et laissera le pays plus désemparé qu'avant...
La conférence de Londres, convoquée en 1933 afin de négocier une issue concertée à l'effondrement du système financier et des échanges internationaux, s'acheva par un désaccord frontal, du fait de l'intransigeance de la délégation française qui défendait le principe de la déflation au plan interne, de la restauration de l'étalon-or au plan international. L'irréalisme de ces propositions provoqua la rupture qui conduisit au cycle des dévaluations compétitives – le dollar suivant la livre dès avril 1933 – d'une part, à l'éphémère construction du bloc-or d'autre part. Venant après les chocs extérieurs de 1929 (krach de Wall Street) et 1931 (dévaluation de la livre), la politique du bloc or entraîna un décrochage de l'activité et de l'emploi dont l'économie française ne se releva pas
Sur la crise de 2008 - 2012....
"Tout Va Tres Bien Madame La Marquise" 1935 Ray Ventura
Toujours la parodie sur la récession !!!! et la propagande !
Affiche intitulée "Ne vous inquiétez pas il est végétarien!"
Quelques rectifications sur la période 1918 -1940, une vision tout à fait novatrice et lucide sur la période précédent la dernière guerre.
Historiquement Show : le débat très bien ordonné par Michel Field, évidemment par Claude Quétel et Eric Zemmour qui fait montre d'un grand sens introspectif, cette émission lui donne aussi un relief intéressant.
Le débat est orienté sur la stratégie militaire française, en ce sens on aborde tous les paramètres géopolitiques intérieurs et extérieurs déjà figés pour l'extérieur dans le traité de Versailles.
On peut méditer entre le parrallèle de cette période et l'attentisme, la résignation, l'impossibilité de cohésion politique avec la période actuelle au niveau européen.
UN DEBAT EXCELLENT en matière stratégique, et anticipation politique.
I am certain that my fellow Americans expect that on my induction into the Presidency I will address them with a candor and a decision which the present situation of our Nation impels. This is preeminently the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly. Nor need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our country today. This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory. I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days.
In such a spirit on my part and on yours we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels; taxes have risen; our ability to pay has fallen; government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income; the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their produce; the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone.More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equally great number toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.
Yet our distress comes from no failure of substance. We are stricken by no plague of locusts. Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered because they believed and were not afraid we have still much to be thankful for. Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply. Primarily this is because rulers of the exchange of mankind's goods have failed through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure, and have abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men.
True they have tried, but their efforts have been cast in the pattern of an outworn tradition. Faced by failure of credit they have proposed only the lending of more money. Stripped of the lure of profit by which to induce our people to follow their false leadership, they have resorted to exhortations, pleading tearfully for restored confidence. They know only the rules of a generation of self-seekers. They have no vision, and when there is no vision the people perish.
The money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization. We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of the restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit.
Happiness lies not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort. The joy and moral stimulation of work no longer must be forgotten in the mad chase of evanescent profits. These dark days will be worth all they cost us if they teach us that our true destiny is not to be ministered unto but to minister to ourselves and to our fellow men.
Recognition of the falsity of material wealth as the standard of success goes hand in hand with the abandonment of the false belief that public office and high political position are to be valued only by the standards of pride of place and personal profit; and there must be an end to a conduct in banking and in business which too often has given to a sacred trust the likeness of callous and selfish wrongdoing. Small wonder that confidence languishes, for it thrives only on honesty, on honor, on the sacredness of obligations, on faithful protection, on unselfish performance; without them it cannot live.
Restoration calls, however, not for changes in ethics alone. This Nation asks for action, and action now.
Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. This is no unsolvable problem if we face it wisely and courageously. It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the Government itself, treating the task as we would treat the emergency of a war, but at the same time, through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our natural resources.
Hand in hand with this we must frankly recognize the overbalance of population in our industrial centers and, by engaging on a national scale in a redistribution, endeavor to provide a better use of the land for those best fitted for the land. The task can be helped by definite efforts to raise the values of agricultural products and with this the power to purchase the output of our cities. It can be helped by preventing realistically the tragedy of the growing loss through foreclosure of our small homes and our farms. It can be helped by insistence that the Federal, State, and local governments act forthwith on the demand that their cost be drastically reduced. It can be helped by the unifying of relief activities which today are often scattered, uneconomical, and unequal. It can be helped by national planning for and supervision of all forms of transportation and of communications and other utilities which have a definitely public character. There are many ways in which it can be helped, but it can never be helped merely by talking about it. We must act and act quickly.
Finally, in our progress toward a resumption of work we require two safeguards against a return of the evils of the old order: there must be a strict supervision of all banking and credits: and investments, so that there will be an end to speculation with other people's money; and there must be provision for an adequate but sound currency.
These are the lines of attack. I shall presently urge upon a new Congress, in special session, detailed measures for their fulfillment, and I shall seek the immediate assistance of the several States.
Through this program of action we address ourselves to putting our own national house in order and making income balance outgo. Our international trade relations, though vastly important, are in point of time and necessity secondary to the establishment of a sound national economy. I favor as a practical policy the putting of first things first. I shall spare no effort to restore world trade by international economic readjustment, but the emergency at home cannot wait on that accomplishment.
The basic thought that guides these specific means of national recovery is not narrowly nationalistic. It is the insistence, as a first consideration, upon the interdependence of the various elements in and parts of the United States — a recognition of the old and permanently important manifestation of the American spirit of the pioneer. It is the way to recovery. It is the immediate way. It is the strongest assurance that the recovery will endure.
In the field of world policy I would dedicate this Nation to the policy of the good neighbor — the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others — the neighbor who respects his obligations and respects the sanctity of his agreements in and with a world of neighbors.
If I read the temper of our people correctly, we now realize as we have never realized before our interdependence on each other; that we cannot merely take but we must give as well; that if we are to go forward, we must move as a trained and loyal army willing to sacrifice for the good of a common discipline, because without such discipline no progress is made, no leadership becomes effective. We are, I know, ready and willing to submit our lives and property to such discipline, because it makes possible a leadership which aims at a larger good. This I propose to offer, pledging that the larger purposes will bind upon us all as a sacred obligation with a unity of duty hitherto evoked only in time of armed strife.
With this pledge taken, I assume unhesitatingly the leadership of this great army of our people dedicated to a disciplined attack upon our common problems.
Action in this image and to this end is feasible under the form of government which we have inherited from our ancestors. Our Constitution is so simple and practical that it is possible always to meet extraordinary needs by changes in emphasis and arrangement without loss of essential form. That is why our constitutional system has proved itself the most superbly enduring political mechanism the modern world has produced. It has met every stress of vast expansion of territory, of foreign wars, of bitter internal strife, of world relations.
It is to be hoped that the normal balance of Executive and legislative authority may be wholly adequate to meet the unprecedented task before us. But it may be that an unprecedented demand and need for undelayed action may call for temporary departure from that normal balance of public procedure.
I am prepared under my constitutional duty to recommend the measures that a stricken Nation in the midst of a stricken world may require. These measures, or such other measures as the Congress may build out of its experience and wisdom, I shall seek, within my constitutional authority, to bring to speedy adoption.
But in the event that the Congress shall fail to take one of these two courses, and in the event that the national emergency is still critical, I shall not evade the clear course of duty that will then confront me. I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis—broad Executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe.
For the trust reposed in me I will return the courage and the devotion that befit the time. I can do no less.
We face the arduous days that lie before us in the warm courage of national unity; with the clear consciousness of seeking old and precious moral values; with the clean satisfaction that comes from the stern performance of duty by old and young alike. We aim at the assurance of a rounded and permanent national life.
We do not distrust the future of essential democracy. The people of the United States have not failed. In their need they have registered a mandate that they want direct, vigorous action. They have asked for discipline and direction under leadership. They have made me the present instrument of their wishes. In the spirit of the gift I take it.
In this dedication of a Nation we humbly ask the blessing of God. May He protect each and every one of us. May He guide me in the days to come.
Je suis désolé mais on ne trouve pas le texte en français : aussi je vous propose de faire un copié/collé sur ce site de traduction :
Une des phrases du début du discours :
" Alors, tout d'abord, permettez-moi d'affirmer ma conviction que la seule chose que nous ayons à craindre est la peur elle-même...."
Si l'on a peur l'on se replie, celui qui insuffle la peur est celui qui anéantit tout espace de cohésion, de lien, à son seul profit. Celui qui règne par la peur ou les peurs en appelle à ce qu'il y a de plus sombre en nous et celle-ci lui sert d'assise.
Ces peurs exacerbées doivent être de plus en plus nourries par le mensonge.... donc à qui sert le crime!!!
La suite du discours le démontre clairement.
Ce discours est solennel, l'assistance est calme, mesurée, l'heure est grâve, le temps des illusions est terminé... on est loin des années folles,chacun se sent concerné en son tréfond par le drame qui s'est joué ; chacun, et ous attendent enfin une réorientation radicale suivie d'effets.
Ce discours sera immédiatement suivi par des actes concrets - aucun commentaire -